- 2003: Masaya did not offer an opportunity to sample high-temperature fumaroles, but its neighbors, Momotombo and Cerro Negro volcanoes, are noted for their fumarolic activity — L.J. Wardell, P. Delmelle, T. Fischer, J.L. Lewicki, E. Malavassi, J. Stix, W. Strauch, Volcanic gas workshop features state-of-the-art measurement techniques.
A fumarole (Latin fumus, smoke) is an opening in Earth's (or any other astronomical body's) crust, often in the neighborhood of volcanoes, which emits steam and gases such as carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrochloric acid, and hydrogen sulfide. The name solfatara, from the Italian solfo, sulfur (via the Sicilian dialect), is given to fumaroles that emit sulfurous gases.
Fumaroles may occur along tiny cracks or long fissures, in chaotic clusters or fields, and on the surfaces of lava flows and thick deposits of pyroclastic flows. A fumarole field is an area of thermal springs and gas vents where magma or hot igneous rocks at shallow depth are releasing gases or interacting with groundwater. From the perspective of groundwater, fumaroles could be described as a hot spring that boils off all its water before the water reaches the surface.
A good example of fumarole activity on Earth is the famous Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, which was formed during the 1912 eruption of Novarupta in Alaska. Initially, there were thousands of fumaroles in the cooling ash from the eruption, but over time most of them have become extinct. Fumaroles may persist for decades or centuries if they are above a persistent heat source, or disappear within weeks to months if they occur atop a fresh volcanic deposit that quickly cools. There are also an estimated four thousand fumaroles within the boundaries of Yellowstone National Park.
Another example is an array of fumaroles in the Valley of Desolation in Morne Trois Pitons National Park in Dominica.
fumarole in Bulgarian: Фумароли
fumarole in Czech: Fumarola
fumarole in German: Fumarole
fumarole in Estonian: Fumarool
fumarole in Spanish: Fumarola
fumarole in French: Fumerolle
fumarole in Italian: Fumarola
fumarole in Lithuanian: Fumarolė
fumarole in Hungarian: Fumarola
fumarole in Dutch: Fumarole
fumarole in Japanese: 噴気孔
fumarole in Norwegian: Fumarole
fumarole in Low German: Fumarol
fumarole in Polish: Fumarola
fumarole in Portuguese: Fumarola
fumarole in Russian: Фумарола
fumarole in Simple English: Fumarole
fumarole in Slovak: Fumarola
fumarole in Swedish: Fumarol
fumarole in Ukrainian: Фумарол